Here you will find a digital (bio)library that brings together the main commitments, knowledge, initiatives and tools on biodiversity.
With this set of bibliographic resources, mostly in Portuguese and English, it becomes easier to understand the challenges of biodiversity, follow its evolution, and consult information on the risk status and protection of species and habitats. Also available are the commitments and indicators related to Biodiversity at The Navigator Company.
The Convention on the Protection of Wildlife and the Natural Environment in Europe was the first European treaty for the protection and conservation of wild flora and fauna, their natural habitats and threatened migratory species. The countries that have signed it, including the members of the current European Union, are committed to cooperating to achieve these goals. It was adopted in 1979 in Bern and came into force in 1982. The The Annexes to the text of the convention Annexes to the text of the convention list the strictly protected species of flora (Annex I) and fauna (Annex II), the protected species of fauna (Annex III) and the prohibited forms of exploitation of the species (Annex IV).
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species Belonging to Wild Fauna, in which countries undertake to cooperate to ensure the protection of these species throughout their range. It was signed in 1979 by the members that currently constitute the European Union and entered into force in 1983. Annex I lists the species whose capture is prohibited
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
A voluntary membership international agreement to prevent trade in animals and plants from endangering the life of species in the wild. On the Species+website it is possible to find out if a given species is included in the Annexes of this Convention and what the respective marketing restrictions are (by searching by scientific name).
European Union Biodiversity Strategy 2030
Presented by the European Commission in 2020 as the centrepiece of the European Green Deal and one of the ways to benefit people, the climate, and the planet. It contains a set of objectives and axes of action, in areas that include, among others, conservation, expansion of the network of protected areas and the recovery of degraded ecosystems.
Legal Framework for nature conservation and biodiversity in Portugal
Decree-Law No. 142/2008, which regulates, among other things, the National System of Classified Areas (in Portuguese, SNAC).
National Network of Protected Areas (RNAP) in Portugal
It defines National Parks, Natural Parks, Natural Reserves, Protected Landscapes and Natural Monuments, with a legal protection status that promotes the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services and geological heritage, as well as landscape enhancement.
National Strategy for Nature Conservation and Biodiversity 2030 (ENCNB 2030) – Portugal
Published in 2018, it is based on three pillars: improving the state of conservation of the national heritage, promoting recognition of its value, and promoting the appreciation of natural heritage and biodiversity by society. The document systematises objectives to be pursued until 2030, determining priorities, and identifies the lines and models and financing that support them.
Natura 2000 Network
It is the ecological network defined for the space of the European Union, which covers more than 18% of European soil and 8% of the sea. It is the main instrument for nature conservation in the European Union. It includes Special Protection Areas (SPA) established under the Birds Directive, and Special Conservation Areas (SCA) established under the Habitats Directive.
The Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF) provides information on the Natura 2000 Network in Portugal.
Intergovernmental treaty established in 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar – in force since 1975 – to protect temporary or permanent wetlands and their resources, including coastal and marine areas, riparian areas, salt marshes, mangroves, and peatlands, among others. Portugal is one of the 172 countries that form part of the treaty (since 1981) and has classified 31 “Ramsar Sites” in the mainland territory and in the Archipelago of the Azores, some of which concurrently hold other protection statuses, such as Natura 2000 Network andRNAP – Rede Nacional de Áreas Protegidas (National Network of Protected Areas).
Report on the State of the Environment in Portugal
Portal of the Portuguese Environment Agency, where regular assessment reports on the state of the environment in Portugal are published, in which various indicators are evaluated and made known, including those relating to soil and biodiversity.
United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
International treaty that recognised the conservation of biological diversity as a concern of humanity in international law. It was signed in 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, within the framework of sustainable development and has, among its objectives, the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of genetic resources.
Act4nature Portugal Commitment
The Navigator Company signed up in 2020 to act4nature Portugal – Companies for Biodiversity, an initiative of the Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD), an organisation of which it is a member. The company was part of the initiative and two of its governing bodies – the Steering Committee and the Advisory Board. It also participated in several of the initiatives promoted by Act4nature Portugal, such as II Biodiversity Conference. Within the scope of its commitments, it reports the main developments and progress – find out about them in this PDF.
Forest Products Sector Guide – Natural Coalition Protocol
Elaboration of the “Support Guide for the use of the Natural Capital Protocol for the forestry sector”and respective “case studies” (2018), within the scope of projects carried out by the Forest Solution Group of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) for the Natural Coalition Protocol.
Natural Values Conservation Strategy
A document that describes the Conservation Strategy adopted by The Navigator Company, briefly structured in four phases: 1) assessment of natural values including biodiversity; 2) mapping and classification of areas of interest for conservation; 3) management, enrichment or replacement actions; 4) monitoring programmes. Discover the Strategy in this PDF.
A review of the Navigator Company’s annual activities, in a report which provides information on the strategic guidelines that guide the company, including “Protecting and enhancing biodiversity”. It is worth mentioning the alignment of these guidelines with several United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), in particular SDG 15 – Protect Life on Earth, framed by SDG 17 – Partnerships for the implementation of the Goals, under which the commitment with Act4nature Portugal was established.
Training within the scope of the “We Value Nature” initiative
Development of training events as part of “We Value Nature” (2018-2021), an initiative supported by the European Commission under the Natural Capital Coalition, which aims to integrate natural capital into the daily lives of companies.
Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Portugal
Published by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Biodiversity, 2008.
Atlas of Mammals of Portugal
2nd edition in electronic format, by the University of Évora, 2019.
Atlas of wintering and migrating birds
Published by the Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds (SPEA), 2011-13.
Collaborative platform of Associação Biodiversidade Para Todos, which promotes the registration of species observed in Portugal by citizens.
Birds of the World
Website and illustrated version with a list of species, photos and families of birds in the world, in Portuguese.
Digital Flora of Portugal
A database on Portuguese continental vascular flora, based on information collected at the Vila Real Herbarium. The initiative is from the Botanical Garden of the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD).
European Breeding Bird Atlas (EBBA2)
Second edition published in 2020 (printed), with a website where information about this pan-European project can be found.
Flora Guide to Continental Portugal
A collection of botany books and paperbacks, edited by the National Press.
Site that features the species of Portuguese flora, with close to 3,000 references.
Global Biodiversity Information System (GBIF)
International network – and online data infrastructure – promoted by several governments, to record and consult data on life on Earth
Cataloguing and characterisation of the Iberian flora (mainland Portugal, mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands), with 6,120 species, published in 19 books and a website. The work was carried out over 40 years, by several generations of botanists, and was completed in 2021.
Collaborative platform that promotes the registration of species, their identification and location in Portugal.
The World Flora Online
A digital database, open to citizen participation, which aims to bring together all species of flora in the world.
Virtual Museum of Biodiversity
University of Évora website dedicated to sharing knowledge about Portugal’s natural heritage, including species and habitats.
Visual Atlas of Iberian Invertebrates
Website and digital notebooks with species present in the Iberian Peninsula.
Global collaborative platform for bird identification in 27 languages for recording field observations.
Biodiversity Information System Framework Tool
Made available by the UN Environment Programme, this tool – a freely accessible interactive PDF – helps define the components needed to set up an information system with biodiversity indicators.
IUCN Red List of Ecosystems
IUCN – International Union for the Conservation of Nature tool that supports the determination of the conservation status of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems.
World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas
Database on ecosystems with great relevance to biodiversity, which supports public decision-making, but also private individuals, in the knowledge and planning of their activities and flows, considering the minimisation of impacts on these ecosystems.
Assessment Reports on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Intergovernmental Platform for Science Policy on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) reports assessing the status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services and other relevant indicators (e.g. pollinators).
Biodiversity Information System in Europe (BISE)
Information site and indicators on biodiversity in Europe, classified areas, ecosystems, policies and signed conventions, among a wide range of political and legal information, reports and technical studies.
Birdlife International’s digital platform with articles, indicators and tools that support knowledge and decisions about birds and their habitats.
European Red List of Amphibians
A publication of the IUCN – International Union for the Conservation of Nature in collaboration with the European Union. 2009 edition
Geocatalogue of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF)
Spatial data infrastructure with a geocatalogue (geographical information) and various functionalities including, for example, statistics on Protected Areas and the Natura 2000 Network.
Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO)
A report published by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) that summarises the latest data, statutes, and trends on biodiversity, determining paths to follow to implement within the scope of the Convention.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Reference list of threatened species worldwide, available online. An IUCN – International Union for the Conservation of Nature initiative.
Living Planet Index (LPI)
Index that monitors amphibians, birds, mammals, fish, and reptiles, following more than 20,000 populations of 4,773 species. The indicators are based on the variation of sizes of monitored populations. It is an initiative of the non-governmental organisation WWF – World Wildlife Fund, in collaboration with the UN Environment Programme’s World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC).
Living Planet Report
Report by the non-governmental organisation WWF – World Wildlife Fund, which contains, among other information, the summary and main indicators of the Living Planet Index (LPI).
Portuguese (digital) Infrastructure for Information and Research in Biodiversity, whose work supports research and knowledge in the area of ecosystems and biodiversity (for academia, government, and civil society), through the organisation and provision of data.
Website of the United Nations Environment Programme and its Monitoring Centre on protected areas and management and conservation measures.
Protected Planet Report
Report from the United Nations Environment Programme and its Monitoring Centre that assesses the state of protected areas in the world.
Red Book of Mammals of Mainland Portugal
Project (still under development in early 2022) that brings together the scientific community, technicians, and citizens in the knowledge about the most threatened species, as well as those that are stable or increasing their populations.
Red Book of Vertebrates of Portugal
It classifies the vertebrate species that can be found in the national territory (freshwater and migratory fish, amphibians and reptiles, birds and mammals) according to their probability of extinction in a given period of time.
Red List of the Vascular Flora of Mainland Portugal
Provides information on the distribution, trends, and threats to the conservation of species and encourages the development of biodiversity conservation actions. It became accessible online in 2020. It is a project of International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUNC), in collaboration with several institutional partners.
Digital scientific journal specialising in biodiversity, conservation and other areas of human activity that influence it. Taylor & Francis Online Editions.
Biodiversity Data Journal
Digital scientific journal specialising in biodiversity across the whole spectrum of the topic. Founded in 1992 by the publisher Pensoft.
Biodiversity Heritage Library
A library specialising in biodiversity, with more than 170,000 titles, which is committed to making documents, studies and works related to issues of biodiversity available to the public.
Biodiversity and Conservation
Digital scientific journal that focuses on all aspects of biological diversity, its conservation and sustainable use. Founded in 1992, it is a partner of the Springer publishing house.
Scientific culture magazine of the Virtual Museum of Biodiversity, University of Évora.
Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD) Portugal
Non-profit association that brings together more than 130 companies in Portugal committed to the transition to sustainability. In the specific context of mobilising companies for the protection, promotion and restoration of biodiversity, BCSD has promoted the initiative since 2018 act4nature Portugal.
European Union – Knowledge Centre for Biodiversity
The European Union provides a repository that supports decision-makers, academia, non-governmental organisations and companies with information and tools in the area of biodiversity.
ICNF – Institute for Nature Conservation and Forests, I.P. (Biodiversity)
The Institute for Nature Conservation and Forests is responsible for the management of Classified and Protected Areas and the management of biodiversity.
Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) – IPBES Portugal
Independent platform, established in 2010, to establish integrated knowledge on biodiversity.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Global authority on the state of the natural world and necessary measures to protect it. It brings together more than 1,400 organisations and more than 18,000 experts.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Global authority on the environmental, with programmes aimed at climate, nature, pollution and sustainable development, among others.
WWF – World Wildlife Fund
Non-Governmental Organisation whose mission is to conserve nature and reduce the main threats to the diversity of life on Earth. In Portugal, it is represented by Associação Natureza Portugal (ANP)